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Sale and Purchase Agreements of Shares in Cyprus Private Companies: Key Considerations

The sale and purchase of shares in a Cyprus private company are significant transactions that require careful consideration and adherence to legal requirements. A well-drafted Sale and Purchase Agreement (SPA) ensures clarity, protects the rights of buyers and sellers, and facilitates a smooth transfer of ownership. This article explores the key considerations and the legal framework surrounding SPAs for shares in Cyprus private companies.

Understanding Sale and Purchase Agreements for Shares:

A Sale and Purchase Agreement for shares is a legally binding contract between the buyer and the seller that outlines the terms and conditions of the share transfer. It sets out the rights and obligations of both parties, the purchase price, payment terms, representations and warranties, conditions precedent, and other provisions relevant to the transaction. An SPA provides legal certainty and minimises potential disputes during the share transfer process.

Legal Framework: The legal framework governing SPAs for shares in Cyprus private companies is primarily governed by the Cyprus Companies Law (Cap. 113), as amended.

Key legal considerations include:

a) Company's Articles of Association: The SPA should consider the provisions of the company's Articles of Association, which may contain specific clauses relating to the transfer of shares, pre-emption rights, and restrictions on share transfers.

b) Due Diligence: Before entering into an SPA, the buyer should conduct thorough due diligence to assess the financial, legal, and operational aspects of the company. This process helps identify potential risks, liabilities, and any issues that may impact the value of the shares.

c) Compliance with Cyprus Law: The SPA must comply with Cyprus laws and regulations. Relevant considerations include compliance with anti-money laundering legislation, tax requirements, and any sector-specific regulations that may impact the transaction.

d) Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission (CySEC): In some cases, when transferring shares of a company regulated by CySEC (e.g., investment firms), additional approvals or notifications may be required as per CySEC regulations.

Key Provisions in an SPA:

An SPA for shares in a Cyprus private company should include the following key provisions:

a) Purchase Price and Payment Terms: The agreement should clearly state the purchase price, payment terms, and any adjustments or conditions related to the payment, such as the use of an escrow account or installment payments.

b) Representations and Warranties: The seller provides representations and warranties regarding the shares being sold, including the ownership, absence of encumbrances, and compliance with applicable laws. The buyer relies on these assurances when making the purchase.

c) Conditions Precedent: The SPA may include conditions that must be satisfied before the transaction can be completed, such as regulatory approvals, third-party consents, or the execution of ancillary agreements.

d) Indemnification and Limitation of Liability: The SPA should address indemnification provisions to protect both parties from potential losses arising from breaches of representations, warranties, or covenants. Limitations on liability, such as time limits for claims, may also be included.

e) Confidentiality and Non-Competition: The agreement may include provisions to protect the confidentiality of sensitive information and prevent the seller from engaging in competition with the company after the transaction.

f) Governing Law and Dispute Resolution: The SPA should specify the governing law and jurisdiction for resolving any disputes that may arise between the parties and if it concerns Cyprus entities it is normally the law of the Republic of Cyprus.

Legal Advice and Documentation:

Sale and Purchase Agreements (SPAs) for shares in Cyprus private companies provide a legally binding framework for the transfer of ownership. By considering the legal framework, conducting due diligence, and including key provisions related to purchase price, representations and warranties, conditions precedent, indemnification, and confidentiality, parties can ensure a smooth and secure share transfer process.

Disclaimer: This article is intended for informational purposes only and should not be construed as legal advice. For specific legal guidance on Cyprus legal matters, it is advisable to consult with a qualified legal professional. If you have any questions or require any legal advice or assistance, please do not hesitate to contact us at


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